Shroud of Turin Facts

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The Edessa Cloth Folded as a Tetradiplon

In Edessa and also in Constantinople, the cloth was apparently kept folded in such a way that only the face was visible. By folding the cloth, doubled in fours (tetradiplon) that is the result: a centered face of Jesus on a horizontal folded cloth as seen in a 10th century painting of Abgar V holding a picture that is odd for its horizontal shape as a portrait.

See Example: Image of Edessa

In Constantinople, the cloth was sometimes ceremoniously unfurled, raised up like a vertical banner, in a way that showed a full frontal picture of Jesus as though rising from a grave. In 1201, Nicholas Mesarites, the sacristan of the Pharos Chapel where the Image of Edessa was kept, wrote:

"Here He rises again and the sindon [=Shroud], is the clear proof, still smelling fragrant of perfumes, defying corruption because they wrapped the mysterious naked dead body from head to feet."

John Jackson was one of several physicists who physically examined the Shroud in 1978. He used special raking light photography to reveal ancient folding creases on the Shroud. He found persistent creases exactly where expected and in the correct folding direction for just such a tetradiplon folding.


  The scientific study of the Turin shroud is like a microcosm of the scientific search for God: it does more to inflame any debate than settle it.”

  And yet, the shroud is a remarkable artefact, one of the few religious relics to have a justifiably mythical status.

  It is simply not known how the ghostly image of a serene, bearded man was made.”

Scientist-Journalist Philip Ball
Nature, January 2005

Nature, that most prestigious of scientific journals, that once had bragging rights to claim that the Shroud was fake, responding to new, peer-reviewed studies that discredit the carbon 14 dating and show that the Shroud could be authentic.


  1. The Shroud of Turin is certainly much older than the now discredited radiocarbon date of 1260-1390. It is at least twice as old and it could be 2000 years old.  FACTS
  2. Though no one knows how it was made, the image is a selective caramel-like darkening of an otherwise clear coating of starch fractions and various saccharides.  FACTS
  3. The blood is real blood.  FACTS
  4. Much of what we think we see in the image is an optical illusion FACTS

Shroud of Turin Facts Check: 2005 Facts